Asian Toadfrogs: Megophryidae
Annam Broad-headed Toad (brachytarsophrys Intermedia): Species Accounts
Physical characteristics: Annam broad-headed toads, also known as Annam spadefoot toads, have so many ridges on their bodies that the head and back almost look as if they are covered with an armor shield. Two ridges begin at the back of the wide head, carry up over the eye to make a pointy eyebrow, then run forward to meet at the tip of the frog's pointed snout. Other, sometimes broken, ridges run from the rear of the head over the broad back or down its sides to the rump. Its head and back are usually light brown to reddish brown. Large for an Asian toadfrog, a female Annam broad-headed toad can grow to 5.5 inches (13.9 centimeters) long from snout to rump. The males are smaller and can reach 4.6 inches (11.8 centimeters) in length.
Geographic range: The Annam broad-headed toads are found in southern central Vietnam.
Habitat: Annam broad-headed toads live in mountainside forests that are between 2,460 to 3,940 feet (750 to 1,200 meters) above sea level. During mating season, they move into nearby streams.
Diet: This toad is an opportunistic feeder that will eat everything from insects and spiders to small frogs and rodents.
Behavior and reproduction: This frog sits still most of the time and blends into the background, which is useful for ambushing prey and for keeping out of sight of predators. If a predator does spot the frog and approach, the frog will open wide its mouth, which may scare away the predator. Unlike most frogs that mate in the spring, or in the spring and summer, this frog mates early in the spring and also late in the fall. The males move to streams and start calling from a sheltered spot under a large rock. Females come to the streams, mate with the males, and lay their eggs under the rocks.
Annam broad-headed toads and people: People rarely see this frog in the wild.
Conservation status: The World Conservation Union (IUCN) now considers the Annam broad-headed toad to be Vulnerable, which means that it faces a high risk of extinction in the wild. Once a common species, its habitat has disappeared in the past 100 years, and the number of frogs has dropped. ∎
FOR MORE INFORMATION
Cogger, Harold G., and Richard G. Zweifel. Encyclopedia of Reptiles and Amphibians. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 1998.
Inger, Robert F. "Distribution of Amphibians in Southern Asia and Adjacent Islands." In Patterns of Distribution of Amphibians: A Global Perspective, edited by William Duellman. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999.
Zhao, Er-Mi. "Distribution Patterns of Amphibians in Temperate Eastern Asia." In Patterns of Distribution of Amphibians: A Global Perspective, edited by William Duellman. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999.
"Black-eyed Litter Frog." Ecology Asia. http://www.ecologyasia.com/verts/amphibians/black-eyed_litter_frog.htm (accessed on February 16, 2005).
"Draft Report Assessing the Impact of Importing Live Asian Horned Frog (Megophrys montana) into Australian Zoos." Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage. http://www.deh.gov.au/biodiversity/trade-use/publicnotices/archive/draft-report/m-montana.html#range (accessed on February 17, 2005).
"Frogs in Kerinci Seblat." Kerinci Seblat National Park. http://www.kerinci.org/about_frog.html (accessed on February 17, 2005).
"Malayan Horned Frog." Ecology Asia. http://www.ecologyasia.com/verts/amphibians/malayan_horned_frog.htm (accessed on February 16, 2005).
"Mountain Litter Frog." Ecology Asia. http://www.ecologyasia.com/verts/amphibians/mountain_litter_frog.htm (accessed on February 16, 2005).
"Spotted Litter Frog." Ecology Asia. http://www.ecologyasia.com/verts/amphibians/spotted_litter_frog.htm (accessed on February 16, 2005).
"Yunnan Moustache Toad." Science Museums of China. http://www.kepu.com.cn/english/animal/class/cls404.html (accessed on February 16, 2005).
- Asian Toadfrogs: Megophryidae - Asian Horned Frog (megophrys Montana): Species Accounts
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