Hoopoes are not threatened, and are common and abundant in most of their range. They have, however, suffered diminished populations at the boundaries of their ranges, especially in Europe where most of their populations have declined over the twentieth century and into the twenty-first century. Their numbers have declined in Africa, Madagascar, and Asia due to previously productive land that has gradually turned into deserts and other lands that have been turned into farmland. A previous species, the giant hoopoe, has been extinct probably since the year 1600.
FOR MORE INFORMATION
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Forshaw, Joseph, ed. Encyclopedia of Birds, 2nd ed. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 1998.
Fry, C. Hilary, and Kathie Fry. Kingfishers, Bee-Eaters and Rollers: A Handbook. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1992.
Harrison, Colin James Oliver. Birds of the World. London and New York: Dorling Kindersley, 1993.
Perrins, Christopher M., and Alex L. A. Middleton, eds. The Encyclopedia of Birds. New York: Facts on File, 1985.
Stattersfield, Allison, J., and David R. Capper, eds. Threatened Birds of the World: The Official Source for Birds on the IUCN Red List. Cambridge, U.K.: BirdLife International, 2000.
"Hoopoe." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hoopoe (accessed on April 24, 2004).
"Upupa epops." Animals Online. http://www.animals-online.be/birds/hoppen/hoopoe.html (accessed on April 24, 2004).