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Frogs and Toads

Conservation Status

The World Conservation Union (IUCN) lists thirty-two species that are Extinct, which means that they are no longer in existence; one species that is Extinct in the Wild, which means that it is no longer alive except in captivity or through the aid of humans; 367 species that are Critically Endangered and facing an extremely high risk of extinction in the wild; 623 species that are Endangered and facing a very high risk of extinction in the wild; 544 that are Vulnerable and facing a high risk of extinction in the wild; 302 that are Near Threatened and at risk of becoming threatened with extinction in the future; and 1,165 that are Data Deficient, which means that scientists do not have enough information to make a judgment about the threat of extinction. ∎



Behler, John. Simon and Schuster's Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of the World. New York: Simon and Schuster, Inc., 1989, 1997.

Clarke, Barry. Amphibian. New York: Dorling Kindersley, 1993.

Florian, Douglas. Discovering Frogs. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1986.

Halliday, Tim, and Kraig Adler, eds. The Encyclopedia of Reptiles and Amphibians (Smithsonian Handbooks). New York: Facts On File, 1991.

Harding, J. H. Amphibians and Reptiles of the Great Lakes Region. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press Institution Press, 1997.

Lamar, William. The World's Most Spectacular Reptiles and Amphibians. Tampa, FL: World Publications, 1997.

Maruska, Edward. Amphibians: Creatures of the Land and Water. New York: Franklin Watts, 1994.

Miller, Sara Swan. Frogs and Toads: The Leggy Leapers. New York: Franklin Watts, 2000.

O'Shea, Mark, and Tim Halliday. Smithsonian Handbooks: Reptiles and Amphibians (Smithsonian Handbooks). New York: Dorling Kindersley Publishing, 2002.


Hogan, Dan, and Michele Hogan. "Freaky Frogs: Worldwide Something Weird Is Happening to Frogs." National Geographic Explorer (March–April 2004: 10).

Masibay, Kim Y. "Rainforest Frogs: Vanishing Act?" Science World (March 11, 2002): 12.

Sunquist, Fiona. "The Weird World of Frogs." National Geographic World (March 2002): 14.

Walters, Mark Jerome. "Spotting the Smallest Frog: As hopes fade for one species, a tiny frog comes into view." Animals (May–June 1997): 8.

Web sites:

"Anura Species Database." LivingUnderworld.org. http://www.livingunderworld.org/anura/families/ (accessed on May 15, 2005).

Morell, Virginia. "The Fragile World of Frogs." National Geographic. http://www.nationalgeographic.com/ngm/0105/feature6/index.html (accessed on February 12, 2005).

"North American Reporting Center for Amphibian Malformations." National Biological Information Infrastructure. http://frogweb.nbii.gov/narcam/index.html (accessed on May 15, 2005).

Stoddard, Tim. "Island hoppers: Sri Lankan tree frogs end game of hide-and-seek." BU Bridge. http://www.bu.edu/bridge/archive/2002/10-18/frogs.htm (accessed on February 12, 2005).

Trivedi, Bijal P. "Frog Fathers Provide Transport, Piggyback Style." National Geographic Today. http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2002/08/0807_020807_TVfrogs.html (accessed on February 12, 2005).

Additional topics

Animal Life ResourceAmphibiansFrogs and Toads - Physical Characteristics, Geographic Range, Habitat, Diet, Behavior And Reproduction, Frogs And People