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Terns Gulls Plovers and Other Shorebirds: Charadriiformes

Conservation Status

Of the 343 species of Charadriiformes, thirty-four are currently considered Threatened, in danger of extinction, by the World Conservation Union (IUCN). Threatened species have been affected by habitat destruction and damage (particularly in wetland areas as well as rivers and streams), pollution, hunting, and other factors. Some species have declined as over-fishing by humans eliminates important seabird prey populations. Finally, certain Charadriiformes species are periodically devastated by large oil spills.



del Hoyo, J., A. Elliott, and J. Sargatal, eds. Handbook of the Birds of the World. Vol. 3, Hoatzin to Auks. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions, 1996.

Perrins, Christopher, ed. Firefly Encyclopedia of Birds. Buffalo, NY: Firefly Books, 2003.

Web sites:

The Internet Bird Collection. http://www.hbw.com/ibc/phtml/families.phtml (accessed on April 15, 2004).

"Order Charadriiformes (Shorebirds and Relatives)." Animal Diversity Web. http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/classification/Charadriiformes.html (accessed on April 15, 2004).

"Birds of the World." Bird Families of the World, Cornell University. http://www.es.cornell.edu/winkler/botw/families.htm (accessed on April 15, 2004).

Additional topics

Animal Life ResourceBirdsTerns Gulls Plovers and Other Shorebirds: Charadriiformes - Diet, Behavior And Reproduction, Gulls, Terns, Plovers, Other Shorebirds, And People - PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS, GEOGRAPHIC RANGE, HABITAT