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Sea Cows Dugongs and Manatees: Sirenia

Conservation Status

Several species of manatees are threatened, according to the World Conservation Union (IUCN). The dugong is listed as Vulnerable, facing a high risk of extinction. It is also listed as Endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. Sirenia are in danger due to habitat destruction brought on by human activities such as recreational boating and fishing. Today great conservation efforts are being made around the world in hopes of keeping the dugong and manatee from the sharing the fate of Steller's sea cow.



Harman, Amanda. Manatees and Dugongs. New York: Benchmark Books, 1997.

Glaser, Karen, and John Elliott Reynolds III. Mysterious Manatees. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida in association with Santa Fe, NM and Harrisburg, VA: The Center for American Places, 2003.

Powell, James. Manatees. Stillwater, MN: Voyageur Press, 2003.

Ripple, Jeff, and Doug Perrine. Manatees and Dugongs of the World. Stillwater, MN: Voyageur Press, 2002.

Silverstein, Alvin and Virginia. The Manatee. Brookfield, CT: Millbrook Press, 1995.

Web sites:

"Dugong, a Sea Cow." BBC Science & Nature: Animals. http://www.bbc.co.uk/nature/wildfacts/factfiles/3073.shtml (accessed on July 9, 2004).

"Dugong (Seacow)." Unique Australian Animals. http://australiananimals.net/dugong.htm (accessed on July 9, 2004).

"Dugongs." Enchanted Learning. http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/mammals/manatee/Dugongprintout.shtml (accessed on July 9, 2004).

"France Celebrates Twin Sea Cows." BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/3290551.stm (accessed on July 9, 2004).

Lundberg, Murray. "The Steller's Sea Cow." Explore North. http://www.explorenorth.com/library/yafeatures/bl-seacow.htm (accessed on July 9, 2004).

"Manatees." Defenders of Wildlife. http://www.defenders.org/wildlife/new/marine/order.html (accessed on July 9, 2004).

"Manatees: Birth and Care of Young." Sea World. http://www.seaworld.org/animal-info/info-books/manatee/birth-&-care.htm (accessed on July 9, 2004).

Save the Manatee Club. http://www.savethemanatee.org/ (accessed on July 9, 2004).

"'Sea cow' could give cancer clues." BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/health/2212081.stm (accessed on July 9, 2004).

Sirenian International. http://www.sirenian.org (accessed on July 9, 2004).

Additional topics

Animal Life ResourceMammalsSea Cows Dugongs and Manatees: Sirenia - Physical Characteristics, Habitat, Diet, Behavior And Reproduction, Sirenia And People, Conservation Status - GEOGRAPHIC RANGE