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Starlings and Mynas: Sturnidae

Physical Characteristics, Behavior And Reproduction, Common Myna (acridotheres Tristis): Species Accounts, European Starling (sturnus Vulgaris): Species AccountsGEOGRAPHIC RANGE, HABITAT, DIET, MYNAS STARLINGS AND PEOPL

COMMON MYNA (Acridotheres tristis): SPECIES ACCOUNTS
EUROPEAN STARLING (Sturnus vulgaris): SPECIES ACCOUNTS
RED-BILLED OXPECKER (Buphagus erythrorhynchus): SPECIES ACCOUNTS

Starlings and mynas range through Africa (except for northern regions), Eurasia (except for northern areas), the South Pacific, and southeastern Australia. The birds have been introduced onto all continents except for South America and Antarctica, and on many oceanic islands.

These birds are located in barren semideserts, temperate (mild) grasslands, tropical savannas (flat grasslands), tropical rainforests, dry to moist evergreen and deciduous forest, and agricultural and urban areas.


They eat mostly insects, but also fruits, berries, grains, dead fish, garbage, and nectar. The birds often eat different foods depending on the time of year and availability of certain foods. They probe for food by opening its bill into materials, pushing loose particles apart, and creating an open area in which to look for food.


Many species are considered agricultural pests. Some occur in such great numbers in urban areas that their acidic droppings damage buildings and monuments and cause health risks. Many species are considered beneficial because they help control insect pests. Others help to scatter seeds around. Starlings and mynas are often captured for food.


Five species of starlings and mynas are listed as Extinct (died out within historic times); two species as Critically Endangered, facing an extremely high risk of extinction; two species as Endangered, facing a very high risk of extinction; five species as Vulnerable, facing a high risk of extinction; and eight species as Near Threatened, in danger of becoming threatened with extinction.

Additional topics

Animal Life ResourceBirds