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Frogs and Toads - Behavior And Reproduction

species eggs males called

Like other amphibians, frogs can breathe through their skin, but they can only do so if the skin is moist. Most frogs are active at night, which is when the air is more humid. Humid air helps them keep their skin moist. During the daytime, these frogs sit still in moist places, like under a rotting log, in a muddy place, underground, or in the crack of a rock. Even when frogs are active at night, they spend a good part of the time sitting still. This is how many species hunt. They remain in one place and wait for an insect or other prey animal to wander past, either grasp it with their mouths or flick out their tongues to snatch it, and swallow it whole. Most frogs have sticky tongues that attach in the front of the mouth and flip outward. Some frogs, including the poison frogs, take a more energetic approach to hunting, and hop about looking for their next meals.

Frogs often mate based on the weather. Those that live in warm, humid places may mate any time of year but usually only do so during or after a rainstorm. Frogs that make their homes in colder climates commonly wait until the temperatures warm and the spring rains have come. For species in especially dry areas, the rainy season is the time for mating. The males of almost all frog species call during the mating season. They make the calls by sucking in and letting out air from the vocal sac, which is a piece of balloon-like skin in the throat area. Most frogs, like the spring peeper, have one vocal sac, but some species, including the wood frog, have two. The males of each species have their own calls. The calls not only attract females but sometimes tell other males to stay away and find their own mating places. In a few species, calls may not be enough, and two males may fight. Most fights are little more than wrestling matches, but in some species, like the gladiator frogs, males have sharp spines and often injure one another. In many frog species, the males call together in a group. This type of group calling is called a chorus (KOR-us). In some species, the males all call and mate over a very short time, often within a few days. Frogs that breed over such a short time are called explosive breeders.

To mate in most species, the male scrambles onto the back of a female in a piggyback position called amplexus (am-PLEK-sus) and hangs onto her. As she lays her eggs, he releases a fluid. The fluid contains microscopic cells called sperm that mix with the eggs. This mixing is called fertilization (FUR-tih-lih-ZAY-shun). Once fertilization happens, the eggs begin to develop. The tailed frogs do things a bit differently. The males have "tails," which are actually little bits of flesh they use to add their fluid to the eggs while the eggs are still inside the female's body.

FROGS IN DANGER

In the 1990s, scientists noticed that the number of frogs around the world was dropping. Some species were nearly gone, and others were already extinct. They began trying to figure out why and now believe that many things may be to blame, including air and water pollution, habitat destruction, and infection with a fungus, called chytrid (KIT-rid) fungus. They also believe that introduced species are a danger to frogs. People often add fish to streams or ponds without thinking about what will happen to the frogs that use the water, too. In many cases, fish eat frog eggs, tadpoles, and sometimes adult frogs. Just a few fish in a pond may be enough to gobble up every frog egg and tadpole for the whole season. Since most adults only live and breed for a few years, the fishes can quickly wipe out an entire frog population.

Depending on the species, a frog may lay less than a dozen eggs at a time or more than a thousand. The typical female frog lays her eggs in the water, often in underwater plants, and she and the male leave the eggs alone to develop on their own. In a few species, one of the parents stays behind to watch over the eggs and sometimes stays to cares for the tadpoles, too. The typical frog egg develops in the water into a tadpole. In some species, the egg develops instead in a moist spot, and in a few species that moist spot is inside a pouch or on the back of one of the parents. A number of the frogs that have their young on land lay eggs that skip the tadpole stage and hatch right into baby frogs. In most frogs, however, the eggs hatch into tadpoles that continue growing in the water. Most tadpoles begin to change into froglets within a month or two, but some remain tadpoles for a year or more. The change from a tadpole to a froglet is called metamorphosis (meh-tuh-MOR-foh-sis). In this amazing process, the tadpole's tail becomes shorter and shorter, tiny legs sprout, and the tadpole begins to take on the shape and color of the adults. Soon a tiny froglet, often still with a little bit of the tail left, takes its first hops.


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over 3 years ago

Hello: I found a toad that I think someone hit with a weedeater. He (or she) just had a little nick on the top of the head, and one front leg doesn't seem to work quite right. Anyway, "something black" keeps coming out of what I thought was the toad's rectum, but it does not look like feces, but is rather liquid with a clear "slime" in it. I washed the toad in a dish of water, and the "unknown substance" spread out and looked like little black dots in a straight line mixed with this clear slime. Does this sound like feces or could it be eggs she is laying due to being somewhat injured by the weedeater?

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almost 3 years ago

"A number of the frogs that have their young on land lay eggs that skip the tadpole stage and hatch right into baby frogs."

We live in East Texas and have experienced drought all summer; 100+ degree temps and no rain. We had a rain last night, and this morning there were tiny little frogs out in the yard about the size of the end of your little finger. I'm wondering where they came from. We have no pond or puddles or standing water for tadpoles to hatch into.

I have been looking for informaton to explain this but the above quote is the only thing I have found that might apply. Where might I find more information?



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over 3 years ago

do they make funny noises when they mate?

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over 5 years ago

How many times does a frog reproduce in its lifetime?

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almost 3 years ago

I forgot to cite the following in my earlier inquiry

Frogs and Toads - Behavior And Reproduction

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almost 6 years ago

do you only have info about frogs and not about toads

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over 4 years ago

Is the female toad being enhanced by the male to produce eggs?

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over 5 years ago

how do frogs find their mates

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over 6 years ago

how often od they reproduce

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about 7 years ago

do frogs and toades fight?

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about 5 years ago

what happens if you mix toads and frogs in the same pond will they eat each other.

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over 1 year ago

do the gove eachother blow jobs

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over 3 years ago

this .com sucks

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about 4 years ago

Do the toads have to mate a couple days before they lay eggs.

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over 3 years ago

hello

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about 2 years ago

How often do frogs lay eggs!???? Just curious.

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about 2 years ago

why does toads respire using their gill when in water.

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about 2 years ago

why does toads respire using their gill when in water.

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over 1 year ago

that is nastie

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over 1 year ago

Can frogs KCUF each other?

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almost 2 years ago

shoooooooot

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almost 2 years ago

SORRY EVERYONE COULDNT FIGURE OUT HOW TO MAKE A NEW POST, BUT HAD AN IMPORTANT QUESTION! slightly concerned, while feed my firebellies mealworms this evening. one of them darted at my hand and picked up a piece of gravel instead. (a pink-purple rock) before i could take the piece out of its mouth, he swallowed it. from what i gathered from the part sticking out, it was roughly small-medium cricket sized. not much i can do at this point is there? if someone can respond ide appreciate them being sent to kroberts009@yahoo.com thank you!

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over 3 years ago

hello