Other Free Encyclopedias » Animal Life Resource » Mollusks, Crustaceans, and Related Species » Lampshells: Brachipoda - Physical Characteristics, Behavior And Reproduction, Lampshells And People, Black Lampshell (hemithyris Psittacea): Species Account - GEOGRAPHIC RANGE, HABITAT, DIET, CONSERVATION STATUS

Lampshells: Brachipoda - Black Lampshell (hemithyris Psittacea): Species Account

animals pedicels brusca attach

Physical characteristics: The hinged valves of adult black lampshells are small to medium in size, with a maximum width of 1.38 inches (35 millimeters). The brownish purple valves are thick and bulging. The lower valve has a long, curved beaklike projection. The lophophore has two spirals and an external support. There are two pairs of kidneylike organs. The pedicel is short. The digestive system is curved and does not have an anus.

Geographic range: They are found all around the North Pole, mostly in the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans.

Habitat: Black lampshells live in warm and cold waters near seashores, between depths of about 33 to 4,265 feet (10 to 1,300 meters).

Diet: They eat bits of plants, animals, and nutrients floating in the water.

These animals attach themselves to hard surfaces with their pedicels. (Illustration by Bruce Worden. Reproduced by permission.)

Behavior and reproduction: These animals attach themselves to hard surfaces with their pedicels. The rear of each mantle lobe has special tissues that produce eggs or sperm.

Black lampshells and people: This species does not impact people or their activities.

Conservation status: Black lampshells are not considered threatened or endangered. ∎



Audubon Society Encyclopedia of Animal Life. New York: Clarkson N. Potter, 1982.

Brunton, C., L. Howard, M. Robin, M. Cocks, and S. L. Long, eds. Brachiopods Past and Present. London and New York: Taylor and Francis, 2001.

Brusca, R. C., and G. J. Brusca. Invertebrates. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates, 2003.


Gee, H. "Lophophorates prove likewise variable." Nature (1995): 493.

Morris, S. C. "Nailing the lophophorates." Nature (1995): 365-366.

Web sites:

BrachNet. Brachiopoda and Brachiopodologists. http://paleopolis.rediris.es/BrachNet/ (accessed on March 29, 2005).

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